Latest Science



At Kellogg, we are always up to date with the latest science, particularly the science related to the importance of breakfast, grains and breakfast cereals..

Here are some of the latest findings:

Dec, 2019: Egg or Cereal Breakfast for a family-based treatment for children with Overweight/Obesity


Boutelle KN, Manzano MA, Strong DR, Rhee KE. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Providing Egg or Cereal Breakfast during a Family-Based Treatment for Children with Overweight/Obesity: The Families and Breakfast Pilot Trial. Child Obes. 2019;15(8):502–509.


Family-based behavioural treatment (FBT) seems to be most successful weight-loss treatment for children with overweight and obesity. This study explored the effects of feeding eggs (FBT+ egg) or cereal (FBT+ cereal) for breakfast as part of an FBT program to families. Analysis of study results displayed that both treatments were accepted, FBT attendance was similar, and there was high compliance with consumption of the specified breakfast. Future studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up period need to be conducted to ascertain the effects of prescribed breakfasts on children's weight and eating behaviours.


November 2019: Factors Influencing British Adolescents’ Intake of Whole Grains.


Kamar M, Evans C & Hugh-Jones S. Factors Influencing British Adolescents’ Intake of Whole Grains: A Pilot Feasibility Study Using SenseCam Assisted Interviews. Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2620.


High whole grain intake is beneficial for health. Findings revealed that low adolescent whole grain intake was often due to difficulty in identifying whole grain products and their health benefits; and because of poor availability in and outside of the home. The images also captured the influence of parents and online media on adolescent daily life and choices. Low motivation to consume whole grains, a common explanation for poor diet quality, was rarely mentioned. Participants proposed that adolescent whole grain consumption could be increased by raising awareness through online media, improved sensory appeal, increased availability and variety, and tailoring of products for young people.


August 2019: RTEC consumption and its link to nutrient intake & diet quality


Smith JD, Zhu Y, Vanage V, Jain N, Holschuh N, Hermetet Agler A. Association between Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption and Nutrient Intake, Nutritional Adequacy, and Diet Quality among Infants, Toddlers, and Children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015-2016. Nutrients. 2019;11(9):1989.


The study investigated the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal nutrient and food group intakes and overall dietary quality among children aged 0.5 to 17 years using the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015-2016). RTE cereal eaters had higher intakes of total carbohydrates, total sugar, fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, as well as lower intakes of total fat and saturated fat (p ≤ 0.0007) than non-eaters. Authors also observed that RTE eaters had 29% higher total dairy intake (p < 0.0001) and 61% higher whole grain intake (p < 0.0001).


July 2019: Skipping breakfast and its relation to adiposity


Wadolowska L, Hamulka J, Kowalkowska J, et al. Skipping Breakfast and a Meal at School: Its Correlates in Adiposity Context. Report from the ABC of Healthy Eating Study of Polish Teenagers. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1563. Published 2019 Jul 11. doi:10.3390/nu11071563


The present cross-sectional study aimed at nutrition knowledge-related, lifestyle (including diet quality, physical activity, and screen time) and socioeconomic correlates of skipping breakfast and a meal at school, considered together or alone and assessed the association of skipping these meals with adiposity markers in Polish teenagers. Results indicated that 17.4% of teenagers frequently skipped breakfast (4–7 days/week), 12.9% frequently skipped a meal at school (3–5 school days/week), while 43.6% skipped both of these meals a few times a week. Further, the authors noticed that “frequent breakfast skippers” were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio, OR 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI 1.38, 2.58) and centrally obese (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.09, 2.44) as compared to “never-skippers,”, while skimpers of both of these meals were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.06, 1.78).


July 2019: Regular breakfast cereal consumption and reduced CVD and diabetes risk


Xu X, Parker D, Inglis SC, Byles J. Can regular long-term breakfast cereals consumption benefits lower cardiovascular diseases and diabetes risk? A longitudinal population-based study. Ann Epidemiol. 2019; 37:43 – 50.e3.


This study was conducted to explore the relationship between breakfast cereals and risk of chronic disorders like overweight, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The authors found inverse association between breakfast muesli and heart disease, stroke, and diabetes across all age groups which was significant (P < .001). Also, oat cereals was positively linked to diabetes for people in the younger age groups (aged 80 years and younger), but not for people in the older age group (aged 80 years and older).


June 2019: Pattern of breakfast consumption and healthy breakfast composition


Delley M, Brunner TA. Breakfast eating patterns and drivers of a healthy breakfast composition. Appetite. 2019; 137:90–98.


The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the Swiss breakfast habits and insights into the determinants of a healthy breakfast composition. Overall, the found that Swiss breakfast composition was moderately healthy, lacking fruits and whole grain products. They further emphasised that being vary of healthy food choices in general, higher education level, being a woman and reporting to be fit are factors linked to a healthier breakfast composition; while preferences for low-fat, familiar or convenient foods are correlated to less healthy patterns.


June 2019: Free sugar content & GI of breakfast cereals consumed in Turkey


Yaman M, Sargın HS, Mızrak ÖF. Free sugar content, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals commonly consumed in Turkey: An evaluation of nutritional quality. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 135: 1082–1087.


The purpose of this study was to determine the free sugar content, in vitro starch digestibility, and predicted glycaemic index (GI) of different types of breakfast cereals commonly consumed in Turkey and evaluate their nutritional quality. The authors found that GI of 6 out of 12 breakfast cereal products was higher than that of white bread. Free sugar content, rapidly available glucose, and resistant starch amounts were significantly related to the increase and decrease of GIs in breakfast cereals, but there was no significant relationship between rapidly and slowly digestible starches. This may be related to the free sugar content in the samples and the extent of extrusion used for the samples. The GIs of breakfast cereals containing oats were found to be lower than those containing rice and corn.


May 2019: Whole grain consumption and successful aging


Foscolou A, D'Cunha NM, Naumovski N, et al. The Association between Whole Grain Products Consumption and Successful Aging: A Combined Analysis of MEDIS and ATTICA Epidemiological Studies. Nutrients. 2019;11(6):1221.


The present study aimed to evaluate the association between whole grain consumption on successful aging, through an analysis of a sample of n = 3349, over-50-years-old men and women participating in the ATTICA and MEDIS population-based cross-sectional studies. Successful aging was evaluated using the validated successful aging index (SAI). High whole grain intake was positively associated with SAI as compared with low (b ± SE: 0.278 ± 0.091, p = 0.002), whereas no significant associations were observed between moderate whole grain consumption and SAI (p > 0.05). Results showed that higher whole grain intake was independently associated with higher successful aging levels and lower cardiometabolic risk for study participants. Therefore, authors emphasise the need for strongly promoting higher whole grain intake as a part of healthy dietary patterns, especially by replacing refined grains without increasing total energy intake, in order to enhance the successful aging process.


11. May 2019: Perspective on ‘Refined grains and health’


Gaesser GA. Perspective: Refined Grains and Health: Genuine Risk, or Guilt by Association? Advances in Nutrition, Volume 10, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 361–371.


Refined grain intake is often associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and obesity. The author has attempted to summarise the published evidence on refined grain intake and its association with various health outcomes outlined above. Results from the meta-analyses included fundamentally show that refined grain intake unrelated to the chronic diseases widely assumed to be moderately or strongly linked to refined grain consumption. By contrast, 9 published meta-analyses consistently show increased risk of these same chronic diseases and all-cause mortality associated with intake of red and processed meat. In summary, this review illustrates a pitfall of attributing health risks to specific food groups based primarily on analysis of dietary patterns.


May 2019: Relationship between whole grain intake and body weight


Maki KC et al. The Relationship between Whole Grain Intake and Body Weight: Results of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.


Studies suggest that higher whole grain (WG) intake is associated with lower risk of weight gain. Cross-sectional and prospective data from observational studies suggested an inverse relationship between WG intake and BMI, as well as change in body weight over time. On the other hand, data from randomised controlled trials of up to 16 weeks in duration with WG interventions did not demonstrate significant pooled differences between higher WG and control groups for measures of body weight and related variables such as adiposity and waist circumference. In summary, the results of these analyses are consistent with dietary recommendations to emphasize intake of WG as part of a healthful eating pattern, although additional research is needed to clarify the potential role of WG food intake in body weight regulation.


May 2019: Effect of daily vitamin D3 supplementation, consumed with an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal on iron deficient females.


Ahmad Fuzi SF, Mushtaq S. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 8 weeks leads to improved haematological status following the consumption of an iron-fortified breakfast cereal: a double-blind randomised controlled trial in iron-deficient women. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(10):1146–1157.


The study purpose was to examine the effect of 38 µg (1500 IU) daily vitamin D3 supplementation along with with an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal for 8 weeks, in iron deficiency females. Fifty iron-deficient subjects were randomized to consume an Fe-fortified breakfast cereal containing 9 mg of iron daily, with either a vitamin D3 supplement or placebo. Significant increases were observed in two main hematological indices: Hb concentration and hematocrit level from baseline to post-intervention in the vitamin D group but not in the placebo group. These findings may have therapeutic implications in the recovery of Fe status in Fe-deficient populations.


April,2019: Relationship between dietary fibre and glycaemic control in type 1 DM


Basu A, Alman AC, Snell-Bergeon JK. Dietary fiber intake and glycemic control: coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study. Nutr J. 2019;18(1):23. Published 2019 Apr 3. doi:10.1186/s12937-019-0449-z


Dietary fibre has been recommended for glucose control, and typically low intakes are observed in the general population. This study examines correlations of dietary fibre with HbA1c using data from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study. Dietary fibre intake and serum HbA1c in the T1D group at baseline was 16 g [median (IQ): 11–22 g) and 7.9 ± 1.3% mean (SD), respectively, and in the non-diabetic controls was 15 g [median (IQ): 11–21 g) and 5.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. A significant inverse association was observed between dietary fiber intake and HbA1c in the model adjusted for age, sex and total calories, and diabetes duration for T1D at baseline visit. This may be important in the management of T1D patients at a high risk of mortality from CVD.


April 2019: Breakfast skipping and cardiovascular health


Shuang Rong, Linda G. Snetselaar, Guifeng Xu, Yangbo Sun, Buyun Liu, Robert B. Wallace, Wei Bao. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Apr, 73 (16) 2025-2032.


The study was conducted to examine the association of skipping breakfast with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The study cohort consisted of 6,550 participants (mean age 53.2 years; 48.0% male) followed for, out of which 5.1% never consumed breakfast, 10.9% rarely consumed breakfast, 25.0% consumed breakfast some days, and 59.0% consumed breakfast every day. After adjustment of co-founding factors, the authors observed that participants who never consumed breakfast compared with that consuming breakfast everyday had hazard ratios of 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 3.04) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 0.99 to 1.42) for all-cause mortality. Hence, it was concluded that skipping breakfast was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality from CVD.


April 2019: Skipping breakfast linked to abdominal obesity in adolescents


Forkert, E.C.O., Moraes, A.C.F.D., Carvalho, H.B. et al. Skipping breakfast is associated with adiposity markers especially when sleep time is adequate in adolescents. Sci Rep 9, 6380 (2019).


Adolescence is a critical stage of development and has an impact on energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs). Obese adolescents are are at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The current study assessed the effect of EBRBs adopted by adolescents on markers of total and abdominal adiposity in a multicentre European study, Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA-CSS) and a Brazilian study, Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH study), and whether sleep duration influence the association between skipping breakfast, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, with total and abdominal obesity (AO). It was found that skipping breakfast was highly prevalent among boys and girls in association with obesity, even after stratification by sleep time. Moreover, boys who slept properly and skipped breakfast had an increased waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI). Among boys less sleep was protective for total obesity (β = −0.93 kg/m2; 95% CI: −1.80; −0.07). Girls when they were more sedentary, showed an increase in WC, especially for those who reported they slept adequately.


April 2019: Oatmeal-Containing breakfast is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake


Fulgoni VL 3rd, Brauchla M, Fleige L, Chu Y. Oatmeal-Containing Breakfast is Associated with Better Diet Quality and Higher Intake of Key Food Groups and Nutrients Compared to Other Breakfasts in Children. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):964.


Objective of the current study was to compare diet quality and nutrient intake of children consuming oatmeal breakfasts to those of children consuming other breakfasts using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Results from the analysis showed that oatmeal consumers had consistently higher diet quality (4-16 points higher HEI 2015 total score, p < 0.05), higher WG intake (0.6-1.6 oz eq. higher, p < 0.05), and higher fibre and magnesium intakes compared to consumers of most other breakfasts or breakfast skippers. Hence, implying that oatmeal could be considered as an important component of a healthy childhood diet.


March 2019: Potential benefits of consuming cereal fibres on gut microbiota


Jefferson A and Adolphus K. The Effects of Intact Cereal Grain Fibers, Including Wheat Bran on the Gut Microbiota Composition of Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Front Nutr. 2019; 6: 33. Published online 2019 Mar 29. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2019.00033.


This systematic review throws light on the fact that increasing daily intake of intact cereal fiber can have a prebiotic effect on gut microbiota composition and activity, helping to support a diverse bacterial population with an increase in bacterial types able to utilize complex fiber structures, with benefits to wide range of bacterial species arising from cross feeding relationships. The strongest evidence is available for wheat bran and wholegrain wheat fibre promoting gut microbiota diversity, as this is the cereal fibre which has consistently demonstrated its prebiotic effects on gut microbiota composition both in its intact form within commonly consumed foods, and in terms of its key active constituent AXOS, with demonstrable effects arising from increases in wheat fibre as low as 6 g/day. Therefore, to conclude the authors suggest increasing cereal fibre consumption for overall good health and gut microbiota diversity.


February, 2019 : Breakfast skipping and its impact on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in Children and Adolescents


Monzani A, et al. A Systematic Review of the Association of Skipping Breakfast with Weight and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents. What Should We Better Investigate in the Future? Nutrients. 2019;11(2). pii: E387. doi: 10.3390/nu11020387.


This review summarizes the association of skipping breakfast with body weight and metabolic outcomes in the paediatric population. The prevalence of skipping breakfast ranged 10⁻30%, with an increasing trend in adolescents, mainly in girls. Skipping breakfast was associated with OW/OB in the 94.7% of the subjects. Skipping breakfast was associated with OW/OB in the 94.7% of the subjects. Participants who skipped breakfast had poor health outcomes - lipid profile, blood pressure levels, insulin-resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The findings on higher cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure levels have been mainly linked to higher insulin resistance in the morning. The increasing risk of MetS is likely associated again to higher insulin-resistance in breakfast skippers, but also to increased fat oxidation and low-grade inflammation. Besides, it could be partly mediated by a higher BMI. Studies has demonstrated that skipping breakfast adversely modulates clock and clock-controlled gene expression resulting in increased postprandial glycemic response in both healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes and MetS. Hence, skipping breakfast could be seen as a potential “marker” of lifestyle behaviors (yet to be elucidated) in children and adolescents that promote OW/OB and metabolic diseases.


January 2019: Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake


Sievert K, et al. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials BMJ 2019; 364:l42.


The study was conducted in 2019 to see the effect of regular breakfast consumption on weight change and energy intake in people living in high income countries. Meta- analysis of the results found a small difference in weight favoring participants who skipped breakfast, participants assigned to breakfast had a higher total daily energy intake than those assigned to skip breakfast. This study suggests that the addition of breakfast might not be a good strategy for weight loss, regardless of established breakfast habit. Caution is needed when recommending breakfast for weight loss in adults, as it could have the opposite effect. Looking at future researches of high quality was recommended by the authors for establishing guidelines related to breakfast and its role in weight management.


January, 2019: Benefits of breakfast consumption


Fayet-Moore F, McConnell A, Cassettari T, Petocz P. Breakfast Choice Is Associated with Nutrient, Food Group and Discretionary Intakes in Australian Adults at Both Breakfast and the Rest of the Day. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1).


The current study was conducted to explore the role that breakfast versus the rest of the day had on daily intakes of the Five Food Groups, discretionary foods, and nutrients among Australian adults. Data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) were used. Twelve per cent of adults were breakfast skippers, 41% were breakfast cereal consumers, and 47% were non-cereal breakfast consumers. The authors found that habit of skipping breakfast decreased with age (p < 0.001), while breakfast cereal consumption increased with age (p < 0.001). Further, breakfast skippers were more likely to be male, had a lower socio-economic status, and lower physical activity levels (p < 0.001). Breakfast skippers had the highest mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (p < 0.001), the lowest intake of wholegrain foods, fruits and vegetables, and the highest intake of discretionary foods (p < 0.001). Breakfast cereal consumers had the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.001) and had healthier diets at both breakfast and throughout the rest of the day. They were the most likely to meet the daily recommended serves for grain foods, fruit, dairy, and vegetables, had the highest wholegrain food intake, and the lowest discretionary intake (p < 0.001). Additionally, breakfast cereal consumers had the most favourable daily nutrient intakes, including the lowest added sugars intakes. Differences in daily diet between breakfast groups were attributed to differences in food choices both at breakfast and throughout the rest of the day.


November, 2018 : Breakfast skipping is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes


Ballon A, Neuenschwander M, Schlesinger S. Breakfast Skipping Is Associated with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. The Journal of Nutrition 2019; 149 (1): 106–113.


Epidemiologic studies have indicated that breakfast skipping is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. This review, investigated the association between breakfast skipping and risk of type 2 diabetes by considering the influence of the body mass index (BMI). A nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of type 2 diabetes increased with every additional day of breakfast skipping, but the curve reached a plateau at 4–5 d/wk, showing an increased risk of 55%. No further increase in risk of type 2 diabetes was observed after 5 d of breakfast skipping/wk. This meta-analysis provides evidence that breakfast skipping is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and the association is partly mediated by BMI.


November, 2018: Relationship between breakfast composition and abdominal obesity


Chatelan, A., Castetbon, K., Pasquier, J. et al. Association between breakfast composition and abdominal obesity in the Swiss adult population eating breakfast regularly. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 15, 115 (2018) doi:10.1186/s12966-018-0752-7.


The current study explored the association between breakfast composition (a posteriori derived dietary patterns) and abdominal obesity among regular breakfast eaters from a Swiss population-based sample. Three different types of breakfast categories were derived- 1) ‘traditional’ breakfast, rich in refined bread and bread products, butter and sweet spread (e.g. jam, honey), 2) ‘prudent’ breakfast, made of fruit, unprocessed and unsweetened cereal flakes, nuts/seeds and yogurt, which are typical ingredients of the Swiss recipe of ‘Bircher muesli’, and 3) ‘western’ breakfast, rich in processed and pre-sweetened breakfast cereals, milk, sugar confectionary and sugary soft drinks, including fruit nectars made of fruit juice, sugar and water. The study showed that a ‘prudent’ breakfast, based on fruit, unprocessed and unsweetened cereal flakes, nuts/ seeds and yogurt, was associated with reduced abdominal obesity. This association was partly explained by a healthier diet during the rest of the day.


October, 2018: Importance of regular breakfast consumption


Uzhova I, et. al. Regularity of Breakfast Consumption and Diet: Insights from National Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrients. 2018; 10(11). pii: E1578. doi: 10.3390/nu10111578.


The current study suggests that regular breakfast intake is associated with overall higher dietary quality, lower prevalence of smoking, and decreased television watching time. Uzhova I, et. al used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS)—a food consumption survey conducted among 1500 Irish men and women over 18 years of age, residing in the Republic of Ireland for this study. They found that regular breakfast consumers (who consumed breakfast 3–4 times out of the 4 days of the collection period), had the highest adherence to healthier dietary patterns, namely, the “vegetarian” (odds ratio (OR): 2.59: 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.40,4.77), “fish and vegetables” (OR: 2.88: 95% CI: 1.63, 5.10), and “breakfast cereals” (OR: 4.62: 95% CI:2.43, 8.79) dietary patterns. Breakfast significantly contributed to the daily micronutrient intake by providing, on average, 24% of dietary fibre, 32% of iron, 30% of calcium, 32% of folate, and 37% of riboflavin.


September 2018 : Wholegrain intake is associated with a lower risk of T2DM


Pepa GD, Vetrani C, Vitale M, and Riccardi G. Wholegrain Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies. Nutrients. 2018 Sep; 10(9): 1288.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) – one of the commonest metabolic diseases, also a leading cause of increased morbidity and mortality is rising at an alarming rate. The authors have collated the findings from large observational-prospective or cross-sectional studies in this paper that concluded that a higher intake of wholegrain is associated with a lower risk of T2DM, as well as an improvement of its major risk factors, i.e., overweight/obesity, plasma glucose regulation, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, habitual wholegrain consumption is linked to reduced risk of other chronic diseases and with a better nutritional quality of the diet, due to better intakes of micronutrients. With respect to T2DM, epidemiological evidence indicates that individuals who consume an average of two-to-three daily servings (60–90 g/day) of wholegrain have a 21–32% reduction in the incidence of T2DM compared with those who rarely or never consume wholegrain.


August 2018: Analysis on the impact of breakfast on overall dietary quality


Fagt S, Matthiessen J, Thyregod C, Kørup K, Biltoft-Jensen A.Breakfast in Denmark. Prevalence of Consumption, Intake of Foods, Nutrients and Dietary Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 14;10(8). pii: E1085. doi: 10.3390/nu10081085.


The study examined the intake of nutrients and foods at breakfast among Danes and the relation to the overall dietary quality. 3680 participants aged 6–75 years were included in the analyses of breakfast consumption. Breakfast was eaten frequently by children and adults and contributed with 18–20% of total energy intake. Breakfast was relatively high in dietary fibre, B vitamins, calcium, magnesium, and low in added sugar, total fat, sodium, and vitamin A and D. A decrease in the intake of added sugar, total fat and saturated fat and an increase in the intake of dietary fibre and most micronutrients were seen across tertiles of dietary quality scores.


August 2018: Risk of hypertension gradually decreased as total dietary fiber intake increased


Sun B, Shi X, Wang T, Zhang D.: Exploration of the Association between Dietary Fibre Intake and Hypertension among U.S. Adults Using 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Pressure Guidelines: NHANES 2007–2014. Nutrients. 2018; 10(8). pii: E1091. doi: 10.3390/nu10081091.


Sun B, et al. aimed at investigating the relationship between dietary fiber intake and hypertension risk in l18, 433 participants aged 18 years or older. Dose-response analyses revealed that the risk of hypertension was associated with total fibre intake in a nonlinear trend, while the relationships were linear for cereal and vegetable fibre intakes. The study was able to conclude that, the intakes of total, cereal, and vegetable fibre, but not fruit fibre, were associated with lower risk of hypertension in U.S. adults in this cross-sectional study. The risk of hypertension gradually decreased as total dietary fibre intake increased until up to 0.35 g/kg/day. Therefore, it might be advantageous to select fibre-rich foods to prevent and control hypertension.


August 2018: Higher breakfast quality and lower breakfast energy density improves cardio metabolic health in overweight/ obese children


Arenaza et al, 2018. Association of Breakfast Quality and Energy Density with Cardio metabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Children: Role of Physical Activity. Nutrients: 10(8).


The study conducted by Arenaza L, et al. aimed at investigating the associations of breakfast quality and energy density from both solids and beverages with cardiometabolic risk factors, in children aged 8-12 years with overweight/obesity. Breakfast consumption, breakfast quality index (BQI) score, BEDs/BEDb (24 h-recalls and the KIDMED questionnaire), and physical activity (PA; accelerometry) were assessed. The study findings suggest that both breakfast quality and breakfast energy density might be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors such as serum uric acid, cholesterol, and insulin resistance in children who are overweight /obese.


Aug 2018: Breakfast consumption improved appetite, satiety, and diet quality and may support some aspects of sleep health in healthy young adults.


Gwin JA, Leidy HJ.: Breakfast consumption augments appetite, eating behavior, and exploratory markers of sleep quality compared with skipping breakfast in healthy young adults.Current Developments in Nutrition 2018; 2(11), nzy074,


The study aimed at examining the effects of consuming breakfast compared with breakfast skipping on appetitive, hormonal, and neural markers of appetite and satiety; ad libitum food intake; and exploratory measures of sleep health in thirteen young adults. Participants were either consumed a high protein breakfast or skipped breakfast for 7 day/ treatment. The authors found that morning and daily hunger, desire to eat, PFC, and ghrelin decreased, whereas fullness increased after the breakfast pattern compared with after the Skip pattern (all, P < 0.05). Breakfast consumption tend to improve overall diet quality, perceived sleep quality and sleep onset compared to skip group.


July 2018: Dietary fibres seem to have a beneficial impact on main pathophysiological pathways involved in cardiovascular risk


Bozzetto L, et al. Dietary Fibre as a Unifying Remedy for the Whole Spectrum of Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Nutrients. 2018 Jul 21; 10(7). pii: E943. doi: 10.3390/nu10070943.


The aim of the study was to determine if dietary fibres could be a suitable option that may also act independently of weight loss. Despite both epidemiological and intervention studies on weight loss that show statistically significant but negligible clinical effects, dietary fibres seem to have a beneficial impact on main pathophysiological pathways involved in cardiovascular risk (i.e., insulin resistance, renin-angiotensin, and sympathetic nervous systems). Although the evidence is not conclusive, this suggests that fibre would be a suitable option to counteract obesity-related cardio-metabolic diseases also independently of weight loss.


May 2018: Diet high in fibre may help prevent obesity by promoting a microbiome associated with a lean phenotype.


Davis H C. Can the gastrointestinal microbiota be modulated by dietary fibre to treat obesity? Ir J Med Sci. 2018 May;187(2):393-402. doi: 10.1007/s11845-017-1686-9. Epub 2017 Oct 16.


Short-chained fatty acids (SCFA) are the bi-product of fibre fermentation and have both obesogenic and anti-obesogenic properties. The production of specific forms of SCFAs depends on the microbes available in the gut and the type of fibre ingested. The gut microbiome associated with healthy lean individuals has a higher microbial biodiversity and a greater Bacteroidete to Firmicute ratio compared to the obese individuals associated with microbiome. These gut microbial associations are similar to those seen in individuals with high and low dietary fibre intakes, respectively. However, neither Bacteroidetes nor Firmicutes is purely causative or purely preventative of obesity.


March 2018: Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren.


Traub M, et al. 2018. Skipping breakfast, overconsumption of soft drinks and screen media: longitudinal analysis of the combined influence on weight development in primary schoolchildren. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18: 363.


A generalised linear mixed effects regression analysis identified the relationship between breakfast, soft drink and screen media consumption with the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. Results of the regression analyses indicate that skipping breakfast led to increased changes in Waist to Hip Ratio, weight and BMI measures.

In Conclusion, targeted prevention for healthy weight status and development in primary school children should aim towards promoting balanced breakfast habits and a reduction in screen media consumption.


February 2018: Cereal fibre, fruit fibre and Type 2 Diabetes


Davison KM & Temple NJ. Cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and type 2 diabetes: Explaining the paradox. J Diabetes Complications. 2018; 32(2):240-245.


Evaluation of evidence from prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials indicates that (insoluble / non-viscous) cereal fibre is strongly protective against T2D(RR = 0.75; 95%; CI 0.65-0.86) whilst (soluble / viscous) fruit fibre gives weak protection (RR = 0.95; 95%; CI 0.87-1.03).

The Canadian researchers hypothesize the protective action of cereal fibre may be attributed to the modulating effects of gut microbiota through the following mechanisms:

  • Improved glucose tolerance via energy metabolism pathways.
  • Reduced inflammation.
  • Altered immune response.


December 2017: Whole grain and fibre intake strongly correlated with reduced obesity predictors


Celis-Morales C, et al. Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018; 72(2):207-219.


A new cross-sectional analysis of data from 1441 participants in the Food4Me RCT conducted in seven European countries aimed to identify obesity predictors independent of other confounding factors (such as energy intake).

The research concluded the three strongest correlates of lower obesity were moderate physical activity, intakes of wholegrains and fibre (β: -1.36, −1.05, −1.02 kg/m2, respectively) [followed by fruits and vegetables, nuts and polyunsaturated fat (β: −0.52, −0.52 and −0.50 kg/m2, respectively)]. Conversely, age, processed meat and red meat were the strongest correlates of higher obesity (β: 1.11, 1.04 and 1.02 kg/m2 respectively).


September 2017: Breakfast cereal is positively associated with nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures.


Fayet-Moore F, McConnell A, Tuck K, Petocz P. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2017; 21:9(10). pii: E1045.


This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents (n = 2821).

Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers.

Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001).


August 2017: Breakfast cereal consumption has been proposed to be protective against obesity.


Quatela A, Callister R, Patterson AJ, McEvoy M, MacDonald-Wicks LK. Breakfast Cereal Consumption and Obesity Risk amongst the Mid-Age Cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Healthcare (Basel). 2017; 5(3). pii: E49.


This study investigated the association of breakfast cereal consumption with the risk of developing obesity ((BMI) ≥30 kg/m2) over 12 years among mid-age participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on women’s Health (ALSWH). There were 308 incident cases of obesity. Any breakfast cereal intake was not associated with incident obesity (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.92; p = 0.68). Oat-based cereal (OR: 0.71; p = 0.01), muesli (OR: 0.57; p = 0.00) and All-Bran (OR: 0.62; p = 0.01) intakes were associated with a significant reduction in obesity>
Among this cohort, muesli on its own, or as part of oat-based breakfast cereals, and All-Bran, were associated with a reduction in obesity.


January 2017: Serving high protein or high fibre breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety


Kranz S, Brauchla M, Campbell WW, Mattes RD, Schwichtenberg AJ. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast. J Nutr. 2017; 147(3):445-452. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.234153. Epub 2017 Jan 11.


In this study, 65 children between the age group of 4-5 years were recruited for the study from local preschools serving low-income populations. The participants were provided with four types of breakfasts – High Fibre [HF] (10 g fibre/d), High Protein [HP] (20 g protein/d), High Protein High Fibre [HPHF] (20 g protein and 10 g fibre/d, respectively) and usual breakfasts (control). The children were asked to rate their level of fullness between “very empty” and “very full”. Children in this study showed reduced total daily energy intake during the intervention breakfast. This reduced energy intake is due in part to the study design, in which the intervention breakfasts had lower fat and higher protein and fibre density. Interestingly, higher scores were seen with the HP and HF breakfasts. The study highlighted that, children who skip breakfast are at higher risk of overweight and poor diet quality than are those who habitually consume breakfast and, better diet quality has been associated with improved BMI values among low-income overweight children. The role of satiation and satiety may be a critical aspect of obesity prevention and treatment in early childhood.


October 2016: Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals is associated with several beneficial nutritional and health outcomes.


Priebe MG, McMonagle JR. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164931.


This study included data only concerning with energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status and excluded RTEC used during hypocaloric diets, eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC.

This research indicates that persons consuming RTEC frequently (5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B6, magnesium and zinc. Also, whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine.


July 2016: The daily consumption of cereal with milk for 12 weeks by adolescent girls, increased intakes of micronutrients.


Powers HJ, Stephens M, Russell J and Hill MH. Fortified breakfast cereal consumed daily for 12 wk leads to a significant improvement in micronutrient intake and micronutrient status in adolescent girls: a randomised controlled trial. Nutr J. 2016; 15: 69.


A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial indicated that consumption of unfortified cereal elicited an increase in the intake of vitamins B1,B2 and B6; whereas consumption of fortified cereal elicited an increase in vitamins B1,B2,B6,B12, folate and iron (P<0.001) and of vitamin D (P=0.007). Consumption of fortified cereal also led to a significant improvement in biomarkers of status for vitamins B2,B12, folate and of iron.


April 2016: Ready-to-eat cereal breakfast was associated with improve nutrient intake at breakfast.


Michels, et al. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents. Eur J Nutr; 55(2): 771–779.


A Cross-sectional regression analyses analysed that, compared to bread breakfasts (39%) and all other breakfasts (41.5%), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion.

The research concluded a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast in consumers consuming RTEC. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet.


May 2015: Fortified Ready-to-eat cereals is associated with improved micronutrient status.


Fulgoni and Buckley ,2015. ‘The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007–2010. J. Nutrients 2015; 7(6): 3949-3958.


This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2–18, 19–99, and 2–99 years of age.

Results suggest that RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification.