Latest Science



At Kellogg, we are always up to date with the latest science, particularly the science related to the importance of breakfast, grains and breakfast cereals..

Here are some of the latest findings:

March 2018: Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren.


Traub M., et al., 2018. ‘Skipping breakfast, overconsumption of soft drinks and screen media: longitudinal analysis of the combined influence on weight development in primary schoolchildren’, J. BMC Public Health, 18:363.


A generalised linear mixed effects regression analysis identified the relationship between breakfast, soft drink and screen media consumption with the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. Results of the regression analyses indicate that skipping breakfast led to increased changes in Waist to Hip Ratio, weight and BMI measures.

In Conclusion, targeted prevention for healthy weight status and development in primary school children should aim towards promoting balanced breakfast habits and a reduction in screen media consumption.


February 2018: Cereal fibre, fruit fibre and Type 2 Diabetes


Davison K.M. & Temple, N.J. 2018, ‘Cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and type 2 diabetes: Explaining the paradox’, J. Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 240-245


Evaluation of evidence from prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials indicates that (insoluble / non-viscous) cereal fibre is strongly protective against T2D(RR = 0.75; 95%; CI 0.65-0.86) whilst (soluble / viscous) fruit fibre gives weak protection (RR = 0.95; 95%; CI 0.87-1.03).

The Canadian researchers hypothesize the protective action of cereal fibre may be attributed to the modulating effects of gut microbiota through the following mechanisms:

  • Improved glucose tolerance via energy metabolism pathways.
  • Reduced inflammation.
  • Altered immune response.


December 2017: Whole grain and fibre intake strongly correlated with reduced obesity predictors


Celis-Morales, C., et al. 2018. ‘Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, pp: 207–219.


A new cross-sectional analysis of data from 1441 participants in the Food4Me RCT conducted in seven European countries aimed to identify obesity predictors independent of other confounding factors (such as energy intake).

The research concluded the three strongest correlates of lower obesity were moderate physical activity, intakes of wholegrains and fibre (β: -1.36, −1.05, −1.02 kg/m2, respectively) [followed by fruits and vegetables, nuts and polyunsaturated fat (β: −0.52, −0.52 and −0.50 kg/m2, respectively)]. Conversely, age, processed meat and red meat were the strongest correlates of higher obesity (β: 1.11, 1.04 and 1.02 kg/m2 respectively).


August 2017: Breakfast cereal consumption has been proposed to be protective against obesity.


Quatela A., et al., 2017. ‘Breakfast Cereal Consumption and Obesity Risk amongst the Mid-Age Cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health’, J. Healthcare,vol. 5(3), 49.


This study investigated the association of breakfast cereal consumption with the risk of developing obesity ((BMI) ≥30 kg/m2) over 12 years among mid-age participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on women’s Health (ALSWH). There were 308 incident cases of obesity. Any breakfast cereal intake was not associated with incident obesity (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.92; p = 0.68). Oat-based cereal (OR: 0.71; p = 0.01), muesli (OR: 0.57; p = 0.00) and All-Bran (OR: 0.62; p = 0.01) intakes were associated with a significant reduction in obesity risk.

Among this cohort, muesli on its own, or as part of oat-based breakfast cereals, and All-Bran, were associated with a reduction in obesity.


September 2017: Breakfast cereal is positively associated with nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures.


Fayet-Moore,et al., 2017.‘Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents’, Nutrients, vol. 9 (10), 1045.


This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents (n = 2821).

Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers.

Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001).


April 2016: Ready-to-eat cereal breakfast was associated with improve nutrient intake at breakfast.


Michels, et al.,2016. ‘Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents’, European Jornal of Nutrition, vol. 55: pp771–779.


A Cross-sectional regression analyses analysed that, compared to bread breakfasts (39%) and all other breakfasts (41.5%), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion.

The research concluded a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast in consumers consuming RTEC. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet.


July 2016: The daily consumption of cereal with milk for 12 weeks by adolescent girls, increased intakes of micronutrients.


Powers H.J., et al.,2016. ‘Fortified breakfast cereal consumed daily for 12 wk leads to a significant improvement in micronutrient intake and micronutrient status in adolescent girls’: a randomised controlled trial’, Nutrition Journal vol. 15:69.


A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial indicated that consumption of unfortified cereal elicited an increase in the intake of vitamins B1,B2 and B6; whereas consumption of fortified cereal elicited an increase in vitamins B1,B2,B6,B12, folate and iron (P<0.001) and of vitamin D (P=0.007). Consumption of fortified cereal also led to a significant improvement in biomarkers of status for vitamins B2,B12, folate and of iron.


October 2016: Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals is associated with several beneficial nutritional and health outcomes.


Priebe, et al., 2016. ‘Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review’, /journal.pone, vol. 11(10): e0164931.


This study included data only concerning with energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status and excluded RTEC used during hypocaloric diets, eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC.

This research indicates that persons consuming RTEC frequently (5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B6, magnesium and zinc. Also, whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine.


May 2015: Fortified Ready-to-eat cereals is associated with improved micronutrient status.


Victor L. Fulgoni, III, and Rita B. Buckley ,2015. ‘The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007–2010’, J. Nutrients, vol. 7, pp 3949-3958.


This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2–18, 19–99, and 2–99 years of age.

Results suggest that RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification.